Posted Friday, June 10th, 2011 at 6:13 pm under deferreds, python, twisted.

How to asynchronously exchange a dictionary using Twisted deferreds

Here’s a fun class that I can’t think of a good use for :-) But I like its simplicity and it’s another illustration of what I like to call asynchronous data structures.

Suppose you have a producer who’s building a dictionary and a consumer who wants to look things up in it. The producer is working at their own pace, making new dictionary entries in whatever work order that suits them, and the consumer is requesting dictionary items in whatever order they need them. The two orders are obviously extremely unlikely to be the same if the dictionary is of non-trivial size. How do you write an asynchronous server (or data structure) that sits between the producer and consumer?

Yes, it’s far fetched, perhaps, but here’s a simple asynchronous dictionary class that lets you do it gracefully:

from collections import defaultdict
from twisted.internet import defer

class DeferredDict(dict):
    def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
        self._deferreds = defaultdict(set)
        dict.__init__(self, *args, **kwargs)

    def __getitem__(self, item):
            return defer.succeed(dict.__getitem__(self, item))
        except KeyError:
            d = defer.Deferred()
            return d

    def __setitem__(self, item, value):
        if item in self._deferreds:
            for d in self._deferreds[item]:
            del self._deferreds[item]
        dict.__setitem__(self, item, value)

When a consumer tries to get an element from the dictionary, they always get a deferred. The deferred will fire with the value from the dictionary when (if) it becomes available. Of course if the value is already known, they get it in a deferred that has already fired (via succeed). When the producer puts an element into the dictionary, any consumer deferreds that were waiting on that element’s value are given the value.

Note that a __delitem__ isn’t needed, we just inherit that from dict. If a non-existent item is deleted, you get the normal dictionary behavior (a KeyError). If the item does exist, that means the list of waiting deferreds on that item is empty (the fact the item exists means any waiting deferreds for the item have all been fired and that that item in the self._deferreds dictionary was deleted), so we can just let the dictionary class delete the item, as usual.

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